Solutions and ethical standard
Using the topic and two solutions which is (access to health care for women) chose specific country, I want you to spend a little time thinking about two different kinds of solutions: one that we ask individuals who are affected by the issue to do, and one that is more community or population-focused.
you will write two sentences weighing each solution against each of the five sources of ethical standard outline below
FIVE SOURCES OF ETHICAL STANDARDS.
1.the Utilitarian Approach–Some ethicists emphasize that the ethical action is the one that provides the most good or does the least harm, or, to put it another way, produces the greatest balance of good over harm. The ethical corporate action, then, is the one that produces the greatest good and does the least harm for all who are affected-customers, employees, shareholders, the community, and the environment. Ethical warfare balances the good achieved in ending terrorism with the harm done to all partiesthrough death, injuries, and destruction. The utilitarian approach deals with consequences; it tries both to increase the good done and to reduce the harm done. Discussion of utilitarian ethics–Markkula Center, Santa Clara University
2.The Rights Approach–Other philosophers and ethicists suggest that the ethical action is the one that best protects and respects the moral rights of those affected. This approach starts from the belief that humans have a dignity based on their human nature per se or on their ability to choose freely what they do with their lives. On the basis of such dignity, they have a right to be treated as ends and not merely as means to other ends. The list of moral rights -including the rights to make one’s own choices about what kind of life to lead, to be told the truth, not to be injured, to a degree of privacy, and so on-is widely debated; some now argue that non-humans have rights, too. Also, it is often said that rights imply duties-in particular, the duty to respect others’ rights. Discussion of rights-based ethics–Markkula Center, Santa Clara University
3.The Fairness or Justice Approach–Aristotle and other Greek philosophers have contributed the idea that all equals should be treated equally. Today we use this idea to say that ethical actions treat all human beings equally-or if unequally, then fairly based on some standard that is defensible. We pay people more based on their harder work or the greater amount that they contribute to an organization, and say that is fair. But there is a debate over CEO salaries that are hundreds of times larger than the pay of others; many ask whether the huge disparity is based on a defensible standard or whether it is the result of an imbalance of power and hence is unfair. Discussion of justice and fairness in ethics–Markkula Center, Santa Clara University
4.The Common Good Approach(Communitarian)–The Greek philosophers have also contributed the notion that life in community is a good in itself and our actions shouldcontribute to that life. This approach suggests that the interlocking relationships of society are the basis of ethical reasoning and that respect and compassion for all others-especially the vulnerable-are requirements of such reasoning. This approach also calls attention to the common conditions that are important to the welfare of everyone. This may be a system of laws, effective police and fire departments, health care, a public educational system, or even public recreational areas.Discussion of the Common Good in ethics–Markkula Center, Santa ClaraUniversity
5.The Virtue Approach–A very ancient approach to ethics is that ethical actions ought to be consistent with certain ideal virtues that provide for the full development of our humanity. These virtues are dispositions and habits that enable us to act according to the highest potential of our character and on behalf of values like truth and beauty. Honesty, courage, compassion, generosity, tolerance, love, fidelity, integrity, fairness, self-control, and prudence are all examples
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