Social Structure and Interaction

Exam #2

Social Structure and Social Interaction

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1. __________ consists of the usual patterns between students and teachers, for example, or between men and women; these patterns were laid out before any of these people were born.
a. Behavior
b. Ordination
c. Social structure
d. Classical structure

2. The __________ framework that determines what kind of people we become is culture.
a. biological c. only
b. narrowest d. most overarching

3. Social class is based on:
a. income, education, and occupational prestige.
b. birth.
c. marriage.
d. religion.

4. Give an example of one ascribed and one achieved social status.
For example, a babygirl born with a disability has a ascribed status.
An example for achieved status is being a nurse.

5. According to the narrator of “Social Interaction and Performance”, reality is something that is ultimately socially constructed.

True b. False

6.A position in society that cuts across other statuses a person holds, such as being a high-ranking Army officer, a college president, or a handicapped Olympian, would be considered that person’s
a. ascribed status.
b. master status.
c. status symbol.
d. status set.

7. When we belong to a group, who has the right to judge our behavior?
a. No one.
b. Only a court of law.
c. No one but ourselves.
d. The group.

8. Which of the following is one of the five functional requisites that functionalists believe a society must meet to survive?
a. Removing a sense of purpose.
b. Yielding the needs of the group in favor of self-interest.
c. Promoting creative chaos.
d. Socializing youth.

9. Officer Friel has just pulled over a motorist exceeding the speed limit by 40 miles per hour. When he approached the vehicle, he recognizes the driver as his best friend’s daughter. Officer Friel is aware that the young lady has had some money problems and the last thing she can afford is a $200 speeding ticket that will also raise her insurance rates. At this point, which of the following terms BEST describes the position facing Officer Friel?
a. Officer Friel is experiencing role strain.
b. Officer Friel is experiencing role conflict.
c. Officer Friel is now engaged in role reversal.
d. Officer Friel is faced with status inconsistency.

10. Daughter, cousin, dad, and grandmother are examples of statuses associated with which social institution?
a. The family. c. Religion.
b. Medicine. d. The economy.

11. Mathilde owns her own grocery. She buys items in bulk and sells each item for more than she paid for it so she can make some money. To encourage repeat business, she is always very polite to her customers and will, for example, give someone a new carton of milk for free if he or she claims there was a problem with the last carton bought—no questions asked! Mathilde’s ways exemplify the norms associated with which social institution?
a. Family. c. Politics.
b. Medicine. d. Economy.

12. The term “organic solidarity” is based on the way that different members of society
a. intermarry.
b. need each other.
c. share the same status level.
d. exploit each other.

13. __________ is (are) the primary focus of microsociologists.
a. Hidden meanings and innuendo c. In-person interaction
b. The broader features of society d. The demise of society as we know it

14. Most conflict theorists are interested in microsociology.

True b. False

15. Our assumptions(right or wrong) about what people are like are known as:
a. educated guesses. c. roles.
b. stereotypes. d. status set.

16. What did Goffman called our efforts to manage the impressions others receive of us?

17. To show ourselves as expert role players and to gain positive recognition from others, we often have additional people work with us to help our performance come off as planned. This is referred to as
a. teamwork. c. face-saving.
b. cooperation. d. social manipulation.

18. The social construction of reality states that through __________, we construct what for us is reality.
a. ethnomethodology c. examinations
b. interactions with others d. introspection

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

19. According to Weber, rationality included calculability, methodical behavior, and emotionalism.

a. True. b. False.

20. In contrast, as a historical materialist, Marx believed that religious beliefs about predestination determined an individual’s place in industrial capitalism.
a. True. b. False.

21. According to the narrator of Crash Course Sociology: Social Groups”, the one thing aggregates, categories, and groups share in common is that individual members share a sense of belonging to a group.
a. True. b. False.

22. As she was walking through the park, Consuela was struck by the sounds of two improvising musicians. They were standing on the grass near some benches, and Consuela stopped to listen to them. Half a dozen other people also stopped. The people listening to the musicians made up a(n)
a. aggregate. c. social network.
b. category. d. secondary group.

23. Of the following groups, identify the one which plays the most significant role in the developments of the self.
a. Primary group. c. Out-group.
b. In-group. d. Secondary group.

24. Kody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan’s Slaves. Kody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Kody, these two rival gangs would be considered
a. reference groups.
b. social networks.
c. out-groups.
d. secondary groups.

25. Jane, Marcos, Courtney, and Lin are enrolled in a sociology course at their college. After studying together for the first test, they started sitting together in class and chose to work together on group projects. During spring break, they decided to go on a trip as a group. These four students would be considered members of a(n)
a. aggregate. c. clique.
b. reference group. d. secondary group.

26. A local theater group, the Cub Scouts, and the Business and Professional Women’s Club are examples of
a. temporary organizations. c. oligarchies.
b. alternatives to bureaucracies. d. voluntary associations.

27. What do sociologists call the links that generate outward from the individual and tie him or her to others?
a. Cliques. c. In-groups.
b. Reference groups. d. Social networks.

28. What is the name of the German sociologist who said that all complex organizations, no matter how democratic when started, eventually develop into oligarchies?

29. According to Weber, in a bureaucracy the task assignments flow __________ and accountability flows __________.
a. downward; upward.
b. upward; upward.
c. upward; downward
d. downward; downward.

30. The smallest number of people that can still be considered a group is how many?

31. In what size group do coalitions first appear?

32. What do we call the group leader who seeks to keep the group focused on achieving its objectives?

33. The leadership style most likely to create resentment among group members is the:

34. The most permissive leadership style is the:

35. In the Asch experiment on conformity, the majority of the subjects did not give in on most of the critical trials.
a. True. b. False.

36. In the Milgram Experiment on Obedience, less than a third of the subjects went on to administer the most severe shock possible.
a. True. b. False.

37. You are in a group of four people. As you start to count up the number of possible relationships between the different people in the group, you realize the maximum number is __________.
a. six
b. three
c. fifteen
d. nine

38. You are in a group of six people. As you start to count up the number of possible relationships between the different people in the group, you realize the maximum number is __________.
a. six c. fifteen
b. three d. nine

39. As group size increases, both stability and intimacy decrease.
a. True. b. False.

40. Groupthink __________.
a. is a business enterprise started by billionaire Irving Janis .
b. has positive attributes according to the text.
c. is of no small consequence.
d. no longer occurs now that everyone is aware of it.

Deviance and Social Control

41. Ted gave a talk to his high school class that was laced with humor and understanding and showed that he really grasped the important points in the history of the French Revolution, which was what his history class was studying. When he was finished, Ted was praised by his teacher as well as by several classmates. The praise was an example of a
a. norm. c. stigmatization.
b. positive sanction. d. negative sanction.

42. Napoleon Chagnon’s visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, best illustrates:
a. nonconforming behavior
b. the need for social sanctions
c. the cultural relativity of deviance
d. the need for absolute standards in defining deviance

43. What was the term employed by Sociologist Erving Goffman (1963) in reference to characteristics that discredit people, including violations of norms of ability and violations of norms of appearance?

44. Why did the “XYY” chromosome theory fall out of favor as an explanation for criminal behavior?
a. It was discovered there are no longer any XYY chromosome configurations among men.
b. Research did not support the theory.
c. The work of the theorist who proposed the theory was plagiarized.
d. The theory only explains deviant and criminal behavior among females.

45. Researchers have discovered that specific childhood experiences are invariably linked to deviant behavior.
a. True. b. False.

46. In families living in dangerous neighborhoods, parents want to move because they feel that if their children have delinquent friends, they will also be likely to become delinquents. Sociological research __________ this belief.
a. rejects c. has not addressed
b. supports d. is mixed in its findings on

47. In control theory, how many control systems are in place to work against our tendencies to deviate?
a. None. c. Two.
b. One. d. Six.

48. According to Hirschi, if our bonds with society are __________, our inner controls will be __________.
a. weak; strong c. strong; strong
b. weak; working harder d. strong; ineffective

49. Judge Ibaraki sentenced Freda, a 13-year-old shoplifter, to a diversion program consisting of counseling instead of sending her to reform school or jail. The judge did not want Freda to be imprinted with a reputation as a thief so early in life. This exemplifies a practice influenced by
a. labeling theory. c. shaming.
b. neutralization. d. degradation ceremonies.

50. Alexander Laizos argues that in their list of deviants, sociologists generally leave out:
a. homosexuals. c. drug users.
b. the judicial system. d. sexually misbehaving persons.

51. Sociologist Howard Becker called the individuals that used the strength of their positon to encourage others to follow their moral stance the “moral majority”.
a. True. b. False.

52. The 1973 study by Rosenhan involved pseudo-patients seeking admission in a mental hospital. All but one of the pseudo-patients was detected and released as sane.
a. True. b. False.

53. Give two examples of street crime.

54. Opportunities for crimes that are part of the fabric of one’s life are referred to as:

55. What kind of crime is committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations?

56. What is the name given to the process in which deviance is seen as a symptom of some underlying symptom needing treatment?

57. Serial murder is defined as the killing of several victims in how many separate events?

58. With 5% of the world’s population, the U.S. has what percentage of the world’s total prison population?

59. A good indicator that the death penalty is disproportionately applied to lower-class citizens is that __________ of all the prisoners on death row have not finished high school.
a. a quarter c. a tenth
b. almost half d. almost all

60. The decision to arrest someone or even to ignore a matter, is a routine part of police work known as which of the following?
a. Police corruption.
b. Police discretion.
c. Recidivism.
d. Medicalization of deviance. For more information on Social Structure and Interaction see this: https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/social-structure

Social Structure and Interaction

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