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Paper one

Kristoff O’Meally
9:13pmJun 4 at 9:13pm
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Intimate violence involves certain types of behaviors which was measured by the NISVS, (Riedel et al., 2016). These include rape, physical violence and stalking victimization. According to Riedel et al. (2016), there are varying ways or factors which intimate violence amongst partners facilitates an increase in such circumstances and can be explained to highlight how the cycle of this offence begins. This can be best explained by what is conceptualized as the cycle of violence. This cycle consists of three stages or factors. Riedel et al. (2016) made clear mention of the tension-building phase which highlighted that there seems to be an increase in what is known as tension-inducing activities by the abuser. These activities include but may not be limited to verbal and physical intimidation as well as physical aggression (Riedel et al., 2016). In the second stage, the abuser releases the aggression he possesses which results in a violent incident. This stage is known as the actual battering incident. The third stage consists of the abuser reacting in a loving way, showering the victim with apologies and kindness along with promises that the likely incident will not recur. On the other hand, Riedel et al. (2016) proved that this cycle repeats which results in an increase in the offence as well.

There are also other factors to consider as well. In traditional cultures the patriarch is deemed to be in control at all times. In studies highlighted within the text, women of certain countries thought that it was acceptable to accept violence from their partners or that they do not have the right to refuse a sexual advance from their partners. Furthermore, patriarchs of the same country or cultures are of that impression as well (Riedel et al., 2016). It is also worthy to note that individuals who experience violence from childhood may be of the notion that it is acceptable to be treated in that manner as this is what they have become accustomed to, therefore there is a factor in the psychological aspect and development of the individual. As a result this would also continue the cycle of either remaining a victim or portraying the violent behavior towards their partners (Riedel et al., 2016). Riedel et al. (2016) also stated that once the victim is battered, this becomes a chronic issue which eventually leaves the victim more vulnerable to the offence again as well as constantly thinking that she has to correct something within herself to prevent the act recurring.

Consequently, there are various ways in which intimate violence can be intervened. Riedel et al (2016) stated the criminal justice system’s response to domestic violence consisted of criminal punishment, deterrence of batterers as well as the use of restraining orders. For criminal punishment the goal is to arrest the offender. This type of measure could also include advising one of the parties (offender/victim) to leave the residence based on an experiment conducted in Minneapolis (Riedel et al., 2016). This actually resulted in the reduction in intimate violence calls for service at about 50% by the idea of the offender being aware of a possible arrest for his actions. As it relates to battering treatment there are treatment programs put in place for batterers which according to Riedel, emphasized the need for anger control and establishing the relationship between power and control. Lastly, restraining orders for battered women which was widely introduced in legislation statewide allows the victim to initiate the sanction as long as there is reliable proof and protection for the victims. The previous claims made can be supported by a study conducted by Almis et al. (2018). This study which outlined and concluded that the risk factors for domestic violence in women along with the possible development of mental disorders highlighted that the employment status of spouses, presence of medical and or psychiatric illnesses in spouses and women all contributed to and predicted domestic violence against these women from the study.

From the video presentation by Steiner (2012), she highlighted the reasons for staying in the abusive relationship. These included denial, meaning she ignored the fact that her husband’s actions were in the form of abuse. Instead she thought that it was partly her responsibility to help her husband who had suffered years of abuse from his father in tandem with possible frustrations he had as an adult. This correlates to Riedel’s claims that the victim would feel further isolated from loved ones. Another reason was that Steiner weighed the pros and cons of leaving the relationship as it relates to the outcome. This was significant which she stated most persons who have not been victimized do not necessarily understand. Domestic violence victims are often fearful that making an effort to leave would result in the loss of their demise. Also, Steiner (2012) stated that the possibility of losing financial resources and having to be around the abuser for the sake of her children was also a factor. Therefore, she is economically dependent on her abuser (Riedel et al., 2016). Riedel added that the idea of patriarchy also plays a role in victims staying in the relationship as women are often characterized and seen as the powerless spouse to her abuser who as a result would not fear any form of retaliation.

paper two

Emely Peguero
9:09pmJun 4 at 9:09pm
Three factors (reasons) that may increase domestic violence in intimate relationships.

Age, marital status, and immigration/socioeconomic status are factors that increase domestic violence in intimate relationships. The reading includes that, in almost every country women who are divorced or separated reported more violent victimization than married women. Other research mentioned in the text reports, aside from Japan and Ethiopia, fifteen to nineteen year old girls are at greater risk for physical or sexual violence. ( Criminal Violence 161). Immigrant women are at high risk for domestic violence, “Immigrant women often feel trapped in abusive relationships because of immigration laws, language barriers, social isolation, and lack of financial resources” (Futures Without Violence https://www.futureswithoutviolence.org/userfiles/file/Children_and_Families/Immigrant.pdf (Links to an external site.)). Immigrant women tend to be intentionally isolated by their abusers, not allowed to go to school, get a job (they focus on childcare and housework), or learn the language of the country they have migrated to. If they were to leave these households it would be rare to find bilingual shelters and financial assistance. Not only do immigrant women tend to come from cultures that accept domestic violence but, women have no other choice but to stay in an abusive relationship because they are financial dependent. Women are often trapped in these relationships, “Not uncommonly, the abuser will convince the immigrant woman that she has no rights, that she is not entitled to any rights in this country, and that he can cancel her status at any time if he so wishes.” They live in fear that their abusers may cancel their petition or stop their processes towards gaining citizenship so they remain in these situations (Violence against Immigrant Women and Systemic Responses https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/202561.pdf (Links to an external site.)).

Three interventions in domestic violence are criminal legal sanctions, batterer treatment, and civic legal sanctions. None of these interventions seem to be very helpful. Criminal legal sanctions, the officer called can either arrest the suspect, order one of the parties out of the residence, or advice the couple. Unfortunately, arresting is not as effective because cases of domestic violence are not often prosecuted. On the other hand with Batterer treatment, the perpetrator of the violence is taken into treatment which emphasizes anger control and the relationship between power and control. However, this treatment has not produced any reliable conclusions. Civic legal sanctions are protective orders which offer victims protection. Although this sounds ideal, these orders offer little protection and are not highly effective in preventing future abuse. (Criminal Violence 173).

It is not proper to ask the question “why doesn’t the victim of intimate violence just leave?” Women in situations of intimate relationships tend to be isolated by their abuser. They do not have contact with friends or family that can witness or speak up the abuse. Also, women in these relationships may be financially dependent on their abuser which prevents them from leaving. The cycle of physical intimidation, violent incidents, and apologies causes trauma and victims begin to rationalize what is happening to them which prevents them from reacting. There is an asymmetric power dynamic within the relationship. This question undermines the severity of a complex and dangerous situation. It’s not easy for a person to leave an abusive relationship because , as mentioned by Leslie Steiner, these situations often end in death. Victims of domestic violence are constantly fighting for their lives.

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