Political Science Response 2

Please notice there are four separate assignments: each one needs approximately 2 pages in length. Each assignment will consist of a response to the prompt and two responses to two classmates. Your response to the prompt should be about 1 page and each response to classmates should be about a half-page.

Assignment 1:LESSON 5 DISCUSSION FORUM: GLOBAL ECONOMY
Remember to provide an original post together with two responses to your classmates’ interventions.

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Prompt:
CEDAW requires state actors to take all appropriate measures to facilitate women’s full participation in the labor market. With this in mind, view the critically acclaimed documentary film RBG via Hulu, Amazon Prime or Youtube. Drawing upon the assigned readings and the film, have women achieved equality in the workplace? In your view, what obstacles have they overcome, which remain and in what contexts? As you contemplate your response, be sure to consider the following related aspects to equality in employment: discrimination in education; training opportunities; formal and informal labor markets; hiring practices; compensation; promotion; inequality in family sharing responsibilities; and unpaid domestic work.

Classmate1 Post:
Watching the film and remembering the past readings, it’s pretty clear that women do not experience equality in their workplace. However, they have made a long strides from previous generations, where women didn’t have the choice of preferred career, and where many of them were pressured to be homemakers and married. Furthermore, they do not have to only go for “pink” jobs, such as a maid, a teacher, or a nurse, and they can go to college. However, there is certain discrimination, especially when it comes to job selection. The film showed that when it came to job applications, women with higher GPAs and prestigious college degrees can lose to male applicants with a lesser GPA and college degree. That doesn’t necessarily mean that there couldn’t be other factors that made the male candidate more desirable, but it does raise claims to discrimination. Another example is how women of minority religions can be looked down by their peers by not just being a woman, but a woman whose religion they dislike. There is also a significant gap of women’s rights between developed and third-world countries, in where the law and society become a direct obstacles to their desires. Thus, I agree with RBG that women need to fight collectively to earn some equality, little by little, and never let up.

Classmate2 Post:
Based on the RBG documentary, it was interesting to see the discrimination Justice Ginsberg faced in the realm of education as well as professionally due to her gender. Despite CEDAW’s requirements to take all appropriate measures to facilitate women’s full participation in the labor market, this economic incentive often falls on deaf ears. Women still face gender-based discrimination in the work place. Although it was more subtle in the past for American women these hurdles still exist and render women to certain career paths. Today, while the number of educated American women has increased, women are still extremely underrepresented in STEM fields. To refer to a past reading, Crenshaw’s theory of intersectional feminism applies due to people’s intersecting complex identities forcing them to deal with not only a gender barrier but other barriers as well pertaining to race, class, sexuality, and disability. In all, the fight for equality for women in education, training opportunities, economic inclusion through hiring practices, compensations and promotions remain widely unaddressed problems. The Equal Rights Amendment has been an effort pushed along by second wave feminist groups to include in the constitution that discrimination based on sex is against the law of the land. Unfortunately it has yet to be passed. Additionally, social biases are on of the biggest obstacles women face. This prevents women from receiving an adequate education later impacting their socioeconomic welbeing and mobility. In all, women’s labor continues to be belittled whether it be domestic work or other professional work and the pay gap is evidence that the US has a long way to go in the quest for gender equality.

Assignment 2: LESSON 6 DISCUSSION FORUM: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
Please remember to share an original post and two responses to facilitate engagement.

Prompt:
Describe how intersectionality theory helps us better understand minority women’s experiences with domestic violence. Does recognizing other markers of identity (e.g. race, ethnicity, religion, immigration status, etc.) help us achieve more effective outcomes for victims? If so, how so? If not, why not? In your view, does an intersectional approach to ending violence against women and girls strengthen or weaken the social movement? Please be sure to cite examples, case studies and/or empirical evidence to support your position.

Classmate1 Post:
Intersectionality helps us understand why minority women may be subjected to domestic violence by explaining the oppression and discrimination that they face. For example, immigrant women are usually more afraid to come forward because of their fear of being deported. If the system makes policies that allow women to come forward without having to face other repercussions then it will be more effective. If there are no policies in place that will solidify their safety then no the outcomes will remain the same. The intersectional approach is strengthening the social movement because it shows how different each case of domestic violence can be. This will open up a door to create universal policies that can apply to everyone rather than one kind of woman.
Classmate2 Post:
The intersectionality theory states that a person is disadvantaged by a number of combined social and political oppressions they face such as their gender, race, religion, social status, sexual orientation, etc. This theory helps us better understand minority women’s experiences with domestic violence because it portrays an angle where two of her identities are considered when discussing her experiences. It’s crucial to take into consideration these identities because minority women are historically at a much greater disadvantage, on top of being a woman.
Recognizing other identities helps us to achieve more effective outcomes for victims because it gives us a better understanding of their situation. When we don’t take this into consideration, we fail to fully educate and connect to these women. There need to be direct sources for minority women. For instance, in the WHO statistics we read, not once does it specify women of color or minorities. Instead, they only put the risk factors, however, many of which have been associated with women of color. They point out “beliefs in family honour and sexual purity,” which in other countries, gives way for honor killings. If certain risk factors correlate towards women of color, it is important that research and further studying is done to see the full picture, especially since a lot of the time, domestic violence goes unreported.
I do believe an intersectional approach to ending violence against women and girls strengthens the movement. It’s not to brush off anyone else’s experience at all, but it’s to note that when you have a minority identity on top of being a woman, you experience changes. A lot of these statistics and data won’t necessarily recognize that, even though minorities are far more vulnerable. In the following article, 36 cases were found to not even have a sufficient sample size of ethnic women or use adequate techniques. According to the Journal of Women’s Health, domestic violence against women disproportionately affects minorities. In addition, they state that “disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of [partner violence].” So many different things can affect a woman’s experience with domestic abuse. When we fight for women’s rights we don’t just fight for one type of woman. It’s important to remember that if we don’t take into account all aspects of someone’s identity, they won’t get the full support that they need.

Sources:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4302952/
https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/violence-against-women

Assignment 3: LESSON 6 DISCUSSION FORUM: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE II
Please remember to share an original post and two responses to facilitate engagement.

Prompt:
Develop an innovative new campaign addressing violence against women and girls. As you do so, consider the following related issues:
What campaigns have already been undertaken;
What types of violence will you address (e.g. physical, psychological, verbal, economic, etc.);
Be sure to describe the problem
Consider how pervasive it is
What are its manifestations and impacts
Which countries or regions are you focused and why;
Describe potential challenges you may encounter and how you intend to overcome them; and
Explain how will you measure the campaign’s success.
Please feel free to share your campaign via a narrative description, PowerPoint presentation or in another format as appropriate.

Classmate1 Post:
My campaign idea to address violence against women and girls would be a different type of campaign than the existing ones. My idea would be to have a bootcamp for the women and young girls. At the bootcamp, the main goal would be to educate the women, uplift their spirits, guide them to heighten their self-esteem and self-worth. And while educating them, it will also be a no contact with men, not having one single man involved in the program, and not dealing with men while they’re at the program, unless it’s their sons. Uplifting their spirits and helping them gain more self-esteem and self-worth will allow them to fight against men, and fight for the right respect and equality that they deserve. Women go through and do too much to be treating like nothing.
Some campaigns that have already been undertaken are ones like UNiTE, UNICEF, World Health Organization, GenerationEqaulity, and CEDAW.
Although all types of violence are an issue, I plan to address the ones that I think are major, which are: physical, psychological, and verbal. Physical/sexual, psychological and verbal violence are all very pervasive, that’s why they need to be addressed the most. Physical violence comes from when men hit and beat on women. Physical violence can also be with men raping their wives. Psychological violence come from stress, anxiety, depression and trauma from how the men in their lives treat them. Then, verbal violence may come from how men talk to these women and young girls, yelling at them, what they say to them, calling them names and saying harsh things to them. Kind of like verbal abuse. All of these types of abuse and violence can manifest and impact, or deteriorate, a women’s mental health, scarring them for life, giving them PTSD, and giving them negative “baggage” and thoughts to carry on into their next relationships and marriage. Women never expect men who are supposed to “love” them to treat them as such. From fathers, to boyfriends and husbands, to sometimes even sons and brothers.
I plan to launch my campaign in countries like Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Korea, Africa, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, and Middle East regions. In these countries, from what I seen, the women are treated very poorly and are not able to have a voice for themselves. In these countries, the women are seen as inferior, and below men. This should call for change.
Some potential challenges that I may encounter may be costs and funding to get the program/bootcamp started, and retaliation and uproars from men. To overcome these challenges, I plan to come up with fundraisers and donation ideas to raise money to get the program started. And to deal with the retaliation and uproars from men, I plan to ignore it. Ignoring it will be like karma for how the society, cultures and countries ignore the women and how they feel. When women speak up against men, they are often shamed, beaten and treated much worse than before. Instead of being just like them and turning to violence, they should be ignored. Sometimes no response is the best response.
To measure success, I plan to collect data and responses from them women and girls themselves. When you don’t collect feedback from the exact source, things tend to get twisted and manipulated. At the end of the program, talk with each women/girl in the program and ask them what they learned, how do they feel, what will they do when certain instances happen, and who will they contact. If the women fall through and do all of the things that was taught in the bootcamp, then the campaign was a success.

Classmate2 Post:
The campaign I would create addressing violence against women mostly deals with issues of economic empowerment and mobility. In modern society, freedom cannot exist without financial autonomy. For this reason, my campaign would emphasize the importance of economically empowering women and girls. Similar to the US, the gender wage gap exists around the world due to inheritance laws, laws concerning the right to open a bank account, and institutional discrimination all render women inferior in their respective societies. By emphasizing the equal treatment of women and girls in economic sectors, social change will likely to follow. Globally, women and children make up the majority of the global poor. Due to economic seclusion that manifests in a number of ways around the world, women are left helpless without male “guardianship” and financial support which is synonymous with male control. The main reason why women do not leave domestic abuse situations is due to financial dependence on their partner. In all, I believe a campaign dedicated to the financial empowerment of women would lead to great social strides as an effect. The countries and regions I would focus on are the countries that refuse to implement CEDAW: the United States and many Middle Eastern countries that although have signed do not believe they are obligated to implement legislation that goes against their religious practices. Once economic equality and empowerment are implemented in these regions, the world is likely to follow suit.
Many challenges are likely to occur due to the overall resistance of women’s rights issues for religious sanctity purposes. In both, the US and the Middle East conservatives are in denial that such problems relating to women’s rights even exist at all. I intend to overcome this challenge by working closely with women in said regions and listening to their ideas and concerns. The campaign’s success will be measured by the number of women who will be financially autonomous.

Assignment 4: LESSON 7 DISCUSSION FORUM: Right to an Education I
Remember to share an original post and two additional responses to your classmates.

Prompt:
Your text describes the four ‘As’ to ensuring the right to an education: availability, accessibility, acceptability, and adaptability. Provide examples – domestic or international – illustrating the impact on women and girls when each or all of these are absent in any given context. For instance, education is inaccessible in country x because the nearest educational institution is three hours away.

Classmate1 Post:
Accessibility is the standard of prohibiting discrimination and alienation of of a subset of group of humans compared to others when to social and economical resources in education. The idea of everyone having equal access to education is a novel concept to developed nations, but it’s cultural issue to tackle in rural villages in Bangladesh for example. Young women around the age of 12-15 stop their education around middle school to be wed off due to parent peer pressure. The idea of education is dominated by a patriarchal mindset, so only men can pursue higher education and college if they choose to, unlike women.
Availability is the standard that education is an right that is not only equally accessed by all, but shared and applied equally, leaving no one to getting a inferior form. In other words, it is allowing everyone to enjoy their right with leaving no one left out. For example, the increasing class size compared to diminishing amount of teachers creates a lesser quality education. This is primarily due to teachers not being paid enough due to their efforts, and “saving costs” by taking in more students and firing more teachers. This is evident in our college campuses today.
Adaptability is the standard that education should not remain static in information; it is dynamic and responsive to the new trends in society. This is inherently a fault that lies within society, much like with accessibility. For example, there are social stigmas that prevent women in college for applying to STEM jobs like engineering, even if colleges like Rutgers today heavily push for total gender inclusion in that work sector. Even some people in our Western society see women in engineering and computer fields as inferior to men, when it is really the case of women feeling pressured by the heavily male dominant career fields in STEM.
Acceptability is is the standard of having a baseline quality that applies to every aspect in a teaching curriculum in education. Even if the right to a good education should be considered a basic right, the quality of a education is really dependent on the socioeconomic standard of that area. For example, here in United States, there is a clear disparity of quality education in the Northeast compared to the South when it comes to public education, due to the disparity of state and local government funding. The Northeast enjoy better qualities of education due to higher taxes, and vice versa for the South.

Classmate2 Post:

Availability- This refers to women and girls having the option to obtain an education and go to school. This happens in many countries around the world, especially in India. Girls are required to stay home due to the cultural beliefs in India and them being needed at home to take care of the house and the men.
Accessibility- Accessibility refers to if an educational system or simply a school is provided for students to go to. The text explains that the State must meet minimum requirements and standards that are available for the students to attend. Many countries who are in war or in extreme poverty experience a lack of availability of education. In Syria with the civil war going on, many schools have been destroyed and it is unsafe for children to go to their schools, leaving them to have no accessibility to obtain an education.
Acceptability- This allows women and young girls to be allowed in the educational space to have their equality of receiving an education. This allows the role of stereotypes to lessen and more women in the workforce. Countries like Saudi Arabia do not view women as equal to men and do not accept them doing anything that is not approved by.
Adaptability- This provides a more flexible educational system to allow individuals of differing beliefs and backgrounds to obtain an education. In more religious countries and states, the curriculum is altered towards what they believe in regards to sex, gender, and cultural beliefs. Even here in the United States, states like Alabama, Texas, and Arizona have the worst sex education teachings and do not explore other topics besides abstinence.

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