Module 4: Discussion Forum Why it is vital to observe and abide by ethical standards when we conduct research? Based on, your proposed topic from Week 2’s discussion; what ethical issues might appear from the study? How would you direct (address) the subjects? Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, citing any sources referenced. Applied Research for Criminal Justice Professionals Module 4: Causation, Experiments, and Internal Validity Internal validity is a primary consideration for studies that assess the effects of interventions and programs (the independent variable). Internal validity concerns the approximate truth regarding a causal inference. A crucial means of improving internal validity is the proper use of research design. Does a new mandatory sentencing law cause an increase in the prison population? Research questions such as this lead to scientific inquiries of cause and effect. Whether the researcher can make valid causal inference depends on the research design employed for data collection and data analysis. In this module, you will examine the basic requirements for establishing cause and effect and the research designs that help meet the requirements. Please, pay careful attention to the concept of internal validity and the ethical issue of deception in experimental studies. Also, in this module, we will discuss the meaning of causation from two different point of views: nomothetic and idiographic. You will have the opportunity to review the criteria for achieving causally valid explanations. During this review, you will give special attention to various key distinctions in research design that are related to your ability to come to causal conclusions. In other words, the use of an experimental or nonexperimental design. In addition, you will be examining the experimental methodology in more detail and learn to: Distinguish different types of experimental designs (which include quasi-experiments and true experiments). Evaluate the utility of specific designs for reaching causally valid conclusions. Identify problems of generalizability through experimentation. Consider ethical problems when conducting experiments. Learning Outcomes Distinguish association from causation. Relate research designs to causality. Assess strengths and issues with experiments. For Your Success & Readings The following recommendations and reminders will adjust your expectations and help you be successful in this module and the course: Post on time in the discussion. Feedback will be essential in the Discussion Board, because we will be expanding on the discussion each week. Each response to a colleague is worth 5 points (up to 25 points). You have 2 Critical Thinking Assignments options this week. You are to choose one option to complete. Required Chapters 6 & 7 in The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice Smith, S. G. (2015). Management models for international cybercrime. Journal of Financial Crime, 22(1), 104-125. Tanner-Smith, E., Fisher, B. W., Addington, L. A., & Gardella, J. H. (2018). Adding security, but subtracting safety? Exploring schools’ use of multiple visible security measures. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(1), 102-119. Next References Bachman, R., & Schutt, R. K. (2017). The practice of research in criminology and criminal justice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. ISBN-13: 9781506306810 Bortolotti, L., & Mameli, M. (2006). Deception in psychology: Moral costs and benefits of unsought self-knowledge. Accountability in Research, 13, 259-275. Kimmel, A. J. (1998). In defense of deception. American Psychologist, 53, 803-805
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