Describe the demographic characteristics of your sample here, including the total sample size and proportions by gender and ethnicity. For variables that were manipulated in the study, indicate how many participants were in each condition or combination of conditions.
Descriptive Statistics and Correlations
Describe the central tendency and variability of each of your measured (that is, continuous) variables. Choose appropriate descriptive statistics for each variable and report the exact values you obtained, rounded as always to 2 decimal places.
Include a table in which you report the means, standard deviations, and correlations among all measured variables in the study. Discuss this table and any trends that are apparent in the data at this point (e.g., relationships as expected or not, outliers, variables with more or less variance than you anticipated), but be careful not to overinterpret these very preliminary analyses!
Your covariate is measured via a multi-item scale; assess the internal consistency of this scale and determine whether it is appropriate to use in further analyses.
In each of these studies, the researchers want to rule out the possibility of differences in recruitment method in the dependent variable. Perform, report, and interpret the results of a t-test for source differences. Specifically, report and interpret the shape of the effect, the size of the effect (Cohen’s d), and whether this result is statistically significant (include your α level, exact value of the test statistic, and p-value).
Effects of Independent Variables [substitute the names of your actual IVs here]
Perform and report an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test the first three hypotheses from the study (two main effects and an interaction). State each hypothesis clearly and then evaluate it. Provide a table of means and standard deviations for all conditions. Use another table to report the appropriate sum of squares, df, mean squares, η2 and F statistic for all effects in the ANOVA. Evaluate and interpret the shape, size, and significance of each main effect (include your α level), reporting the most relevant values from your ANOVA in the body of your paper (not just the table!) to support your conclusions about each of those three properties. Where appropriate, perform and report post hoc comparisons, and explain why you performed these tests. Clearly state whether each hypothesis is supported.
Include a figure describing the interaction between the two independent variables. Report and interpret the shape, size and significance of the interaction, again reporting the most relevant values from your ANOVA in the body of your paper to support your conclusions. Clearly state whether each hypothesis is supported.
Covariate [substitute the name of your actual covariate here]
Perform, report, and interpret the results of a simple linear regression analysis evaluating the relationship of the covariate to the dependent variable. Include the standardized regression coefficient, test statistic, α level, and p-value. Evaluate and interpret the shape, size, and significance of this effect and whether your hypothesis about the covariate is supported.
If you choose, for 5 points extra credit, perform, report, and interpret the results of an ANCOVA testing all four hypotheses simultaneously. Report all necessary test statistics, p-values, and estimates of effect size, and report the appropriate ANOVA table (this means you will have two). Evaluate and interpret the shape, size, and significance of each effect and whether each hypothesis is supported; compare these results to your prior findings and discuss whether any of your conclusions change when you take the covariate into account.
Begin your discussion by summarizing the main findings of the study in conceptual terms; what are the key takeaways you want a reader to remember from this study? What do these findings mean?
In what ways are these findings consistent with what we know from the research literature? What past research helps support the argument that these findings are reasonable? How do your findings build on or extend past research? You should refer to at least 1-2 sources in addition to those mentioned in the Introduction. [This section should be at least 2-3 paragraphs]
In what ways are these findings surprising, or inconsistent with past research? What was unexpected, or which predictions (if any) were not supported? What plausible explanations do you see for these results? Again, you should refer to at least 1-2 sources in addition to those mentioned in the Introduction (and in addition to those mentioned above). [This section should be at least 2-3 paragraphs]
Why is this study valuable? What important thing(s) did we learn from this study? What about the study was well done? Why should we have confidence in the results and in the conclusions you’ve made? [You should be able to identify at least one realistic contribution and 2-3 realistic strengths of the study, explaining each]
What are the practical implications of your study? That is, how might psychologists (or others) use these findings in practical settings (e.g., therapy, education, business)? It is OK to speculate a little here if you do so in appropriate language, making it clear where you are speculating (“Although full clinical trials would be needed, therapists might be able to incorporate these principles in therapy by…”).
Realistically, what reasons do we have to be cautious about this study? To whom do the results generalize? What threats to internal and/or external validity can you identify (name them precisely)? How, specifically, do those factors limit your ability to draw conclusions based on these data? [You should be able to identify at least 2-3 realistic and important limitations and explain why they limit your conclusions]. Where appropriate, argue for why your study still has value despite these limitations (“Although the sample was not representative, it was large and diverse…”).
In your view, what is the next step for researchers interested in studying this topic? Be specific and defend your position – why this particular next step and not another? Your future directions should follow logically from the conclusions, contributions, and limitations you identified earlier.
End your paper with a summary paragraph that reinforces the single most important thing you want the reader to take away from the study. Don’t overstate your conclusion, but leave the reader with a clear sense of what you learned and why it matters. [This is the hardest paragraph to write – do your best!]
Provide a complete APA-style reference list that includes every article you mentioned in the body of your paper. At a minimum, this should include the two sources you used from the Introduction and the four new sources you found in your Discussion Plan & Bibliography Worksheet, for a total of at least six peer-reviewed articles. You are welcome to cite additional articles (or other types of sources) if you like; make sure they are included in your References in proper APA format.
Place your table of descriptive statistics, your table of cell means, your ANOVA table(s), and any other tables you choose to include here. Your tables should follow APA format as presented in class and your APA Manual or Easy Guide. Do not paste screen shots of R output; I want to see that you know what values to look at and report.
Include your interaction figure (and any others you choose to include) here. You may paste screen shots of figures you obtained from R, but ensure that they are labeled appropriately and that they are clear and readable.
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