Drug Performance

A normally distributed population of scores has μ = 100 and σ = 10. A sampling distribution is established with n = 9. Describe the sampling distribution in terms of μ M , its standard error, and shape.

Suppose a research hypothesis predicts that Drug A will generate higher performance numbers than Drug B .
A. State the null and alternative statistical hypotheses
B. What finding would result in a failure to reject the null?
C. How would a finding to fail to reject the null be interpreted in terms of the research hypothesis?
D. What finding would support the research hypothesis?
E. What finding would allow the researcher to reject the null but would not allow the researcher to support the research hypothesis?

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Imagine it is known that American teenagers spend, on average, three hours a day on social media. Further, imagine that a community wanted to change this and took intentional steps to create numerous activities for the local teenager population that did not involve social media. Further, suppose that a researcher wanted to test the effectiveness of this community’s programs by sampling the local teenager population and asking them about their social media involvement.
A. What would the null and alternative hypotheses look like?
B. What would be a finding that would result in failing to reject the null?
C. What would be a finding that would support the objectives of the community organizers?
D. What would be a finding that would reject the null but not support the objectives of the community organizers?

Suppose we know the average university student sleeps 6.5 hours a night during the school week with a standard deviation of 0.5 hours. What is the standard error if we create a sampling distribution with n = 100?

A clinical psychologist is interested in evaluating treatments for panic attacks. The number of reported panic attacks during the 6‐month program of treatment is used as the dependent variable. Fifteen clients suffering from panic disorder are randomly assigned to three conditions (five participants per group). In the breathing condition, clients are taught how to breathe slowly and deeply at the first sign of an attack. Clients in the medication condition are administered a sedative, three times a day. Clients in the control condition are not provided with any treatment. The data are presented in the following table.
Breathing    Medication     control
16    12    9
22    15    12
15    13    16
9    18    18
13    12    10

A.    State the null and alternative hypotheses.Calculate the following values.
B.    SS BG
C.    SS W
D.    df BG
E.    df W
F.    MS BG
G.    MS W
H.    SS T
I.    df T
J.    F ratio

A researcher is interested in the effect of emotion on concentration. A two‐sample study is designed in which anger is induced in one sample by having a confederate provoke an argument in the lab waiting room. The control group does not undergo this mood induction. Both samples are then tested on a computer stunt driving game and the number of times the participant runs the vehicle into an object (crashes) is counted. The data follows.
Angry Group    Control Group
6    6
9    5
13    8
11    6
5    9
10    7

Conduct a one‐way ANOVA on these data (even though there are only two levels of the independent variable). Compare the conclusions to Part 4 , Problem 10, in which this same study should have been analyzed using an independent‐samples t test.
hypotheses.Calculate the following values.

B. SS BG
C. SS W
D. df BG
E. df W
F. MS BG
G. MS W

State the sources of variance of the numerator of the F ratio when H 0 is correct and when H 0 is incorrect.

Use cells to draw the following research designs. Create meaningful labels for the factors. Make some of them independent variables and identify them as such.
A. 2 × 2
B. 3 × 2
C. 4 × 4
D. 3 × 7

An experimental psychologist is interested in how performance is affected by reinforcement and amount of food deprivation. Performance is measured by the time, in seconds, it takes a rat to run down an alley to a food box. Twenty rats are randomly assigned to four treatment conditions: High Incentive–High Deprivation, High Incentive–Low Deprivation, Low Incentive–High Deprivation, and Low Incentive–Low Deprivation. Deprivation level is manipulated by maintaining one group of rats at 85% of their normal weight and a second group at 95% of their normal weight. Incentive is manipulated by the size of the reward at the end of the alley. In the Low‐Incentive condition, a 45‐mg food pellet is waiting. In the High‐Incentive condition, a 260‐mg food pellet is waiting. The raw data for this hypothetical experiment are presented in the following 2 × 2 matrix. Set alpha at .05 and perform a two‐way ANOVA.
A. Summarize the results in an ANOVA table.
B. Provide a graph with incentive on the X axis.
C. Calculate ω 2 for any rejected null hypotheses.
D. If necessary, run either type of multiple comparisons to aid in interpretation.
E. What do these results tell us about the effect of incentive and deprivation on performance?

Romano and Bordiere ( 1989 ) conducted a study to determine if the physical attractiveness of a professor influences students’ perceptions of how much they think they will learn from the professor. The design was a 2 × 2 factorial; one factor is the physical attractiveness of the professor (Attractive/Unattractive), and the other factor is the biological sex of the student (Male/Female). Students provided ratings on a 9‐point scale, which reflected how much they thought they would learn, with higher numbers reflecting more learning. Slides of professors were used to obtain the ratings. The following data set is hypothetical, but is constructed so that we arrive at the same results as the investigators.
A Provide an ANOVA summary table.
B Calculate ω 2 for any effects found.
C. Interpret the findings.
13.) If we conduct a repeated‐measures study with 5 treatment conditions and 20 participants, what would be the df for the F ratio?

 Suppose repeated‐measures ANOVA results are reported as F (3, 24) = 4.25, p < .05. How many participants were involved in the study?

psychologist is interested in the effects of subliminal messages on problem solving. A repeated‐measures design is used. Simple arithmetic problems are presented on a computer screen; the participants are told to work as quickly as possible. In the positive condition, the phrase “Good Work” is flashed just below recognition threshold, every 30 seconds. In the negative condition, the phrase “Don’t Fail” is flashed. In the control condition, no subliminal phrase is projected. The number of problems correctly solved is presented in the following table.

A.)    Summarize the results in an ANOVA summary table.
B.)    Calculate a measure of effect size (either one), if appropriate.
C.)    If necessary, run Fisher’s LSD tests to help clarify the findings.
D.)    Interpret the findings.
19.) A wine manufacturer would like to know which of three hors d’oeuvres goes best with their white Chardonnay. Participants are asked to take a bite of an hors d’oeuvre, sip the wine, and provide a taste rating from 1 – atrocious to 10 – fantastic. Taste ratings are provided in the following table. Test the null hypothesis when α = .05.
A.) Summarize the results in an ANOVA summary table.
B.) Calculate a measure of effect size (either one), if appropriate.
C.) If necessary, run Tukey’s HSD tests to help clarify the findings.

We observe that people seem to be happier when they are wearing a new article of clothing. We would also like to test whether level of happiness depends on the particular type of new clothing worn. To test this, we provide a random sample of five of our classmates with new T‐shirts and new shoes and instruct them to wear each article of new clothing for one day and to wear only one new article each day. Order of wearing the articles is counterbalanced across participants. At the end of the day, we ask these participants to rate, on a 10‐point scale, how happy they are. On another day, when they are not wearing a new article of clothing, we also ask for a happiness rating. Ratings for each participant are reported below. Higher scores indicate greater happiness.
A.) Summarize the results in an ANOVA summary table.
B.) Calculate a measure of effect size (either one), if appropriate.
C.) If necessary, run Fisher’s LSD tests to help clarify the findings.
D.) Interpret the findings.

friend wants to see if a background color influences unconscious perceptions of biological female attractiveness for biological males. Our friend has biological male participants that look at a series of 200 pictures of individuals; many different types of backgrounds are used. Unbeknown to the participants, the picture of one individual is repeated in the series, once with a red background (believing this color to be unconsciously associated with sexuality) and once with an off‐white background. The dependent variable is the amount of time (in seconds) the participants look at the target images before moving on to the next one. The presentation order of the two images is counterbalanced across the participants. The gathered data are presented below. Select and run the appropriate statistical analysis and provide a general interpretation of the findings.
BACKGROUND COLORS            RED                    OFF WHITE
P1    4.3    3.5
P2    2.0    2.0
P3    2.7    2.2
P4    3.4    3.0
P5    3.9    3.3
P6    5.1    5.1
P7    1.8    1.5

friend does not believe that the effect found in Exercise #5 is due to the supposed sexual nature of the color red but rather to the fact that it is bright in comparison to the boring off‐white color. This friend constructs another similar study but this time introducing a bright green background as well. So, now one particular individual is shown three times, once each with a red, green, and off‐white background. Counterbalancing is once again used. The data follow. Select and run the appropriate statistical analysis and provide a general interpretation of the findings.
BACKGROUND COLORS    RED            GREEN                OFF WHITE
P1    4.6    4.4    3.5
P2    2.5    2.2    2.0
P3    1.5    1.1    1.2
P4    4.4    4.2    3.4
P5    2.7    2.9    2.3
P6    4.1    4.0    4.1
P7    5.0    3.9    3.5

preschool teacher would like to make sure students rest during quiet time. The teacher wonders if the children will relax more quickly if a story is read to them, soft music is played, or they drink a glass of milk. Children are randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions. For one week, the teacher records the average number of minutes it takes each child to fall asleep. The data are shown below. Select and run the appropriate statistical analysis and provide a general interpretation of the findings.

Sleep inducer
Story  Music Milk
6    4     2
6     8     6
9     7     5
8    6     4
8     10     7
10     6    5
12    5     3. For more information on Drug Performance see this: https://www.encyclopedia.com/sports-and-everyday-life/sports/sports/performance-enhancing-drugs

Drug Performance

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