Reply to classmates post , at least 125 words each a dj 1 scholarly reference within las 5 years for each
Delirium is a mental state where the victim acts disoriented or distracted, such that they can no longer provide accurate information about very simple activities. The condition is common among older adults who have dementia. Delirium may often go unnoticed, but it has serious side effects on the victim’s health and quality of life. Various factors may cause the brain of an individual to stop functioning normally, leading to the impairment of normal sending and receiving signals in the brain. Some of the causes of delirium include certain medications, drug intoxication, exposure to a toxin, urinary tract infection, metabolic imbalances, malnutrition, and medical procedures that include anesthesia (Mayo Clinic, 2021). The common medication that can cause the condition include pain drugs, sleep medications, drugs for treating spasms, antihistamines, Parkinson’s disease drugs, asthma drugs, and steroid medicines; therefore, all the questions I will ask the patient will touch on allergic conditions to any of the mentioned drugs.
During the physical assessment, I will ask the patient about their family history of Parkinson’s disease. The disease is a brain disorder that can cause delirium. Moreover, the administration of drugs to treat this condition can cause delirium. In addition, I will ask the patient whether he has any allergic disease (Mattison, 2020). The treatment of an allergic condition using antihistamines is a risk factor for delirium. Moreover, I will ask the patient whether he is asthmatic or has a family history of the disease. Asthma is a common hereditary disease, which is incurable; therefore, understanding a family’s history of the disease can help in its management.
Delirium occurs when there is a change in one’s mental state. Delirium has two categories hyperactive and hypoactive (2020). Hyperactive delirium occurs when the patient is agitated or restless. Hyperactive delirium symptoms include acting disoriented, anxiety, hallucinations, rambling, rapid emotional changes, restlessness, and trouble concentration (2020). Hypoactive delirium is more common and occurs when the patient has sleepiness and slow response. Hypoactive delirium symptoms include apathy, decreased responsiveness, flat affect, laziness, and withdrawal (2020). Those at highest risk of developing delirium include those that have had surgery, end of life patients, those in the ICU, advanced age, HIV patients, and cancer patients (2020). Causes of delirium development include alcohol or drug toxicity/overdose/withdrawal, infections, changes in environment, dehydration, medications with anticholinergic effects, psychoactive medications, opioids, hyper and hypo thyroidism, hospitalizations, kidney or liver failure, lack of oxygen, lack of sleep, and pain (2020).
A healthcare provider would collect more information relating to the delirium by asking questions such as:
When did the confusion occur?
Did the confusion come on suddenly or gradually?
What was your mental and physical state before this occurred?
What medications are you currently taking?
Are you taking the medication as directed?
Why are you taking these medications?
How long have you been taking these medications?
What supplements are you currently taking?
If the patient is not able to provide answers to the healthcare providers questions, then a family member or caregiver present would be able to supply necessary information. Treatment plans would then be modified for the patient weighing the benefits of either continuing the medication or discontinuing. For more information on Delirium Mental State see this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delirium
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