with this essay i will provide the sources i have been using on this paper and it has to be 8th edition MLA and also all work cited has to be in alphabetical order thanks.
: There are several objectives for this assignment:
1. incorporate college-level research, both secondary and personal, in a proficient and
2. synthesize materials from the previous papers so that the material has information from
all but follows the appropriate purpose;
3. present a clear problem statement that shows understanding of most conditions
surrounding the problem;
4. Identifies suitable strategies to solve the problem and implement solutions;
5. proposes and evaluates reasonable solutions;
6. Evidences mastery of the MLA format.
The Claim of Policy paper is, ultimately, the culmination of what you have done over the course
of the semester. Your Claim of Policy will present specifics about your topic and justify the
relevance of the topic for your audience. Your Claim of Policy will argue points and present a
course of action to provide a solution for the problem at hand. You must also discuss the benefits
for the solution(s) you propose. Ultimately, your Claim of Policy will present the ideas you have
been working on over the course of the semester, and it will demonstrate the following:
1. You are able to establish an argument and present that argument to your reader in
a proficient written work;
2. You are able to successfully integrate sources into your text so that your reader
can understand why the sources were used and how those sources are relevant to
3. You are able to synthesize ideas from recognized authorities with your own;
4. You are able to convince your audience your ideas are sound and worthy of their
5. You have mastered the use the structure, grammar, and syntax of standard written
6. You have mastered the use the MLA format.
This is your Claim of Policy, not the Proposal, the Claim of Fact, or the Annotated
Bibliography. While you may have ideas from the Proposal or the Claim of Fact, this is
the Claim of Policy, so there must be proposed solution(s) included here.
You MUST follow the MLA. There is information on MLA in numerous places, among
them the Language Center, The Bedford Handbook, the Content section of our D2L
shell, and me. If your paper is not in the MLA format, the grade will be reduced—note
the MLA section on the rubric.
YOUR PAPER WILL NOT BE GRADED UNLESS IT MEETS THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR LENGTH AND NUMBER OF SOURCES; remember
what we said about using block quotes, graphs, charts, or pictures! YOU WILL
NOT RECEIVE A GRADE, AND YOU CANNOT REVISE THIS PAPER.
LENGTH: This paper must be 10-12 pages – Note I did not say 9½ or 12½. The Works Cited
page in not considered one of these pages though you must have a Works Cited page.
SOURCES: You must have at least eight 8 sources for this paper, no more than eleven 11. All
of these sources must come from legitimate college-level sources.
With regard to sources, you MUST have at least one short direct quote and one summary
or paraphrase, and you must have one long/block quote; all of the sources must obviously
be formatted and cited correctly. Remember, with the long/block quote, you can have one
long/block quote that takes up to nine (9) lines of your text after it is formatted. If you
choose to use another long/block quote – or a picture, chart, or anything else that is not
specific text in the paper, you must make up for the spacing in the length of your paper.
For example, if you one long/block quote that is nine (9) lines and then you have another
long/block quote that takes up nine (9) lines, now your paper must be at least ten (10)
pages and nine (9) lines. Remember, it says “at least one . . .” for short direct and
summary and/or paraphrase, but you can use more, BUT you must be the primary writer,
HERE IS THE CLAIM OF FACT SOME OF THESE CAN BE USED
Local Problems about Tornadoes Claim of Fact
A tornado is a rotating and violent column of air that extends from a thunderstorm to the ground. It is dangerous, disastrous, and most hazardous tornadoes move at a rotating wind speed of more than 250 miles per hour, sweeping anything on its course. The rotating whirlwind by the storm is capable of causing massive destruction, such as the uprooting of the trees, turning harmless objects into missiles and destroying buildings. Most tornadoes are a few yards wide and briefly touch the ground while highly destructive and violent storms create paths over a mile wide and more than 50 miles long. The violent tornadoes comprise about 2% of the entire tornados category and are responsible for 70% of storm-related fatalities. The tornadoes develop from thunderstorms in warm, moist, unstable air along and ahead of cold fronts. Such thunderstorms generate big hail and lethal winds. Tornadoes strike at any moment but always occur during spring and summer months. Tornadoes strike at any time of the day or night but are likely to occur mostly around 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. The purpose of this essay is to expound on the local problems about tornadoes’ claim of fact.
Numerous local problems are surrounding the preparedness and protection of the tornado disasters because of the mixing of the myths and facts on the problem. There are myths and fictions about the events of tornado influence the scientific facts about the tornado events in specific locations. The myths are a significant problem in creating a comfort zone in people’s minds for a disaster in waiting because of a lack of preparation. Some of the issues are the misinformation about the tornado disaster caused by myths, and most individuals tend to believe instead of believing the real fact on how to tackle the problem (Chaney et al 345). The local myths suggest that tornadoes do not strike or hit bigger cities, cross bodies of water, or form in the mountains. It is a misleading statement and a local problem interfering with the preparedness rate of an individual against the tornados. The report is untrue because the tornadoes can strike or hit anywhere on earth as long as it exists along its defined course. Factually, people need staunch be preparedness for a tornado no matter which section of the country they live in to reduce the casualties during the disaster. People need to be aware of the local area’s emergency notification system, and the many regions have a siren to inform the resident of the impending whether threat so that they take action before the actual disaster. There are also wireless emergency alerts from the National Weather Service (NWS) on the mobile devices to prepare people to shelter in ditches, culverts, or ravines during the tornado’s strike.
Another local belief and a significant problem affecting tornado preparedness is the myth that we should go to the southwest corner of our basements during a tornado warning. The issue is a real problem misguiding people and highly stalls the actual preparation of a possible tornado strike in particular areas. The reality is that tornadoes always move in any direction, and hiding in a corner will not be more critical than using other alternative protective measures (Durage et al 66). The kind of myth is a problem as it interferes with the human mind on issues concerning proper protection against a tornado strike in time. The best action to take in contradiction of the myth is to take shelter within an interior room on the lowest floor or the basement of a building away from the exterior walls and windows. The action would help in detection from a possible tornado disaster in waiting (Frank and Michael 34). Hiding under overpass protection would be the best protection from a tornado while in a car. It is also advisable to park the car as fast and safely as possible out of the traffic lanes and seek shelter within a sturdy building or underground if possible if a tornado forms while driving.
Another problem is a myth stating that people should only need to worry about the tornado strikes during the tornado season. The fact is that the tornadoes happen at any time of the year, not necessary during the spring and summer months. The issue is a local belief and a tornado preparedness drawback that might lead to many casualties during the time of emergency. The initiation of the right action is imminent in such situations to assist ignorant people by preparing them ahead of the disaster. The preparation is through discussing the safety measure with the in case of any emergency. People need the information to sensitize them in performing home inventory for the accountability of all the personal belonging. The inventory would also include individuals to be ready for the aftermath of the tornado that does not strike as anticipated. There is a need for emergency training concerning the tornado disaster by conducting a dry run on a sunny day to inform individuals how to behave in the event of a national tragedy (Mulilis et al 131). Local beliefs are influencing the facts about tornadoes such and causing many problems to humanity, such as believing that tornado itself is the deadliest aspect of the storm. It is not the case, a misleading statement, and a problem since the most critical issue of a tornado id the flying debris accompanying the wind that could hit and hurt or cause destruction to property. The real action to take about the problem is for people to wear shoes and helmets during the tornado warning because the shoes will protect their feet from broken glass and other moving debris. The helmet will help in the protection of their heads from the flying debris that seems dangerous or fatal. People need to cover themselves with a mattress sleeping bag, and thick blankets to protect them from the falling debris.
There is local philosophy or mythical problem about the United States not having many tornado cases or occurrences as other countries in the world is another local problem. It is a local belief and a problem diverting the attention of people at the time of disaster because the fact is that America has the highest number of tornado occurrences in the world, and appropriate awareness is needed to save the situation. Necessary action in such a case is the understanding of the myth and misconceptions concerning tornadoes and be careful or procreative. The decision about a safe space within the homes is essential in case of the actual or impending tornado strike. It is crucial to make sure that all the family members, including the pets, are in the safe area until the officials’ call of the tornado warning. People should be careful when coming out of their tornado hiding room as weak walls can hurt them or hanging furniture.
It is also ridiculous and a form of a local myth associated with tornado facts that during the issues of a tornado warning, people should open the window in the house. The reality is that during a tornado, the opening of the windows will make no difference, as the attempt to depressurize building during the time of tornado will not balance the tornado force. The action is not wasting time opening the house window during a tornado warning. It is vital to take shelter in the basement of any house available without windows during the storm to protect flying debris from cutting people. The myth of the home insurance never covers tornado destructions factor influence the real facts behind the preparation, occurrence, plus aftermath of a tornado (Watson et al, 45). The factual statement is that the standard homeowners’ policies entirely cover a vast range of natural disasters such as tornados. Indeed, some strategies, such as the ones in the coastal areas, can exclude with damage reflating the recovery of massive tornado damage. The real remedy and action against the statement are that people living within the coastal cities need to countercheck to ascertain their wind coverage. Customers with ex-wind homeowner’s insurance policies can select to buy a wind-only system, and every person needs to check their homeowners’ insurance policy for coverage of a particular problem.
Chaney, Philip L., et al. “Household preparedness for tornado hazards: The 2011 disaster in DeKalb County, Alabama.” Weather, Climate, and Society 5.4 (2013): 345-358.
Durage, Samanthi W., S. C. Wirasinghe, and Janaka Ruwanpura. “Comparison of the Canadian and US tornado detection and warning systems.” Natural Hazards 66.1 (2013): 117-137.
Frank, Henry, and Michael Frank Johnnie. “Tornado alarm system.” U.S. Patent No. 6,034,608. 7 Mar. 2000.
Mulilis, John‐Paul, T. Shelley Duval, and Karen Bovalino. “Tornado Preparedness of Students, Nonstudent Renters, and Nonstudent Owners: Issues of PrE Theory 1.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 30.6 (2000): 1310-1329.
Watson, Barbara, Virginia Sterling, and Stephan Kuhl. “When The Weather Turns Severe: A Guide To Developing A Severe Weather Emergency Plan For Schools.”
HERE IS THE CLAIM OF POLICY WITH SOURCES
Local problems about tornado claim of policy
Tornadoes are devastating, leaving destruction in the lives of the people affected. People suffer psychologically and socio-economically; some lose their lives to the disaster (Clark 237). In some areas, they get displaced from their regions entirely to the point that they will never get back there again. Buildings fall, leaving a bare land with no sign of hope or anything valuable, which means people have to close their business while the tornadoes destroy some of the companies. The year 2011 will remain in the minds of many Americans, where tornadoes affected the country from all ranges of dimensions and corners. The national Weather services confirmed occurrences of over 1600 hurricanes in the country, in a single year more than it has ever happened in history. The storm prediction center estimated that over $25 billion were lost in a single year. It was such a big economic loss (Clark 237). Two occurrences were evaluated at the loss of $13.9 billion alone in between April 22 and May 27 that year, with over 500 fatality cases. Recently there was an occurrence of tornadoes in Nashville in February this year that left many families displaced. Nashville has been marked as the hotspot of tornadoes in the United States, and the city is still under reconstruction. Yet, even before recovering from earlier economic losses, they found themselves on the hook of tornadoes (Ewing, Kruse, and Thompson 47-60). The damages caused by tornadoes amount to billions of shillings in repairing. Therefore they require large compensations by an insurance company for the victims to be able to reconstruct their life back to normal. This paper analyzes the claim policy form the problems caused by the tornadoes to understand how people can be compensated without having to struggle for compensation. The article also discusses some of the solutions to the problems caused by tornadoes.
Tornado damage claim policy.
Many people had experienced problems when they tried to follow up with their insurance covers to compensate them after an occurrence of a tornado. Understandably, people take insurance policy coverage so that they find somewhere to run to when they are faced with a natural disaster. The comprehensive financial and property loss has to be compensated by their insurance covers for them to resume their ordinary life and take on their economic activities and reconstruction (Prevatt et al. 254-270). Unfortunately, victims of tornado disaster realize that their insurance companies is not always their friend when it comes to filing claim to get compensated for an occurrence. Some companies compensate their members, but sometimes it is not somewhat considering the losses they incur to the tornado occurrence.
Some of the issues reported with the insurance companies include failing to promptly investigate and assess the damages caused by the tornado to find an actual estimation of the loss. Most companies find it hard to investigate the damages incurred after an occurrence of a natural disaster to find the solution. The cause of failing to conduct an exclusive investigation is not known, some people reason that it is maybe they are afraid that the damage caused is too significant that it will take them a lot of resources to compensate.
There is also a problem of some insurance companies offering low-bail and unreasonable settlements to the victims of the tornado. When it comes to a natural disaster, a huge loss is incurred, a single organization can lose millions of money to a tornado. However, insurance companies find it hard to compensate such claims. Considering the insurance policies for natural disasters companies should be ready to compensate victims fully without holding some finances (Korinek and Serven 104-136). People dig deep into their pockets to pay for expensive policies deep down in their minds understanding the consequences of not adhering to those policies and what it causes them when they find themselves in a crossroads of a tornado occurrence. Most scholars have asked questions about the reasons why insurance companies find it difficult to compensate victims sufficiently, and the answer that comes in their minds that some companies cover members from tornado hotspot centers. When such occurrence happens in the region, the companies may become bankrupt after compensating all members of the actual value of their loss. When a tornado occurs, it affects many people in the same region. In the circumstances, an insurance company had covered many members form such a single area, and then the company may be looking down to its closure because of settling many claims at once. The Ohio insurance institute estimated that a Memorial Day tornadoes constituted of $465-$480 million of the insured losses in southeast Ohio. The amount represented thirty-thousand claims that translated to 70 percent of the homeowners and the auto insurance claims. In such a case, insurance estimates the value of compensation and its total amount, and sometimes it may find it hard to compensate for all the claims. In some instances, the insurance company may also find it hard to compensate for the total loss incurred by the victims.
Another problem that has been experienced in the claim policy of tornado occurrences is the misinterpretation of the initial policy coverage. Many insurance companies put members into signing up for their covers without taking them to a deeper understanding of their covers. Many people continue to pay for their policies, yet they have no idea what the policy covers and what it does not. That’s one of the most significant problems when it comes to victims sorting out for compensation of the losses they incur form the occurrence of a tornado. One of the pictures of the people’s interpretation of the insurance covers is in the claims that are filled in property owners going after tax reductions. It is noted that property owners fill their insurance cover forms to seek a reduction in their taxable properties value in the Montgomery County offices (O’Donovan 537-558). In that perspective insurers may fail to sign in for the right covers because their main aim is tax reductions. When filing for a claim the form includes the question of how much damage the victim incurred form the tornado occurrence and how much the insurance company compensated the victims. When the forms that were filled by the victims were analyzed it was not that most victims were compensated much far than the damage. The insurance companies could not become liable for the policies the victims had signed for as most were not natural disaster occurrence considerate and could not be compensated like policyholders who fulfilled all the disaster policy requirements. In such a perspective, most victims had to explore alternatives or even rely on the government’s help in reconstructing their life again after the tornado.
Another problem realized in the insurance claim policies after the occurrence of tornadoes is the insurance method of applying wrong depreciation values while calculating the compensations they are supposed to pay to the victims. The financial reports like balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statements, and the statements of the owner equity represent the financial health of an insurance organization and the progress of the organization’s financial picture. However, when it comes to insurance covers, such statements should systematically be scrutinized before they are qualified to calculate the compensation value to a victim. Unfortunately, such statements, when charged to a covers policy them may have a more significant effect on the value of the policy because the company will always go for the side that favors profit-making of the organization (Bickley and Michel 235-246). Generally accepted accounting principles has a significant consequence when it comes to cash. That principle states that while money is used to compensate for a long-lied property of the victim, such as a building, the expenditure is not considered as the expense against the building value or the benefit it had to the victim in tornadoes occurrence time. Instead, the value of the asset is placed on against the balance sheet and that the value of the property will always be reduced over the use of the property in the lifetime. The reduction of the value of the asset is the expense that has to be incurred by the victim, and that expense is the depreciation. In that case, a victim finds that the compensation of the damage caused by a tornado is not enough for them to resume their life the way they had.
Another problem encountered is the insurance company’s way of delaying the processing of the valid claims forms the damages caused by tornadoes. The delaying of processing claims will always cause inconveniences in repairing and restructuring the damages caused. Insurance companies use tactics to shift the delay of compensating victims. These tactics include asking for unnecessary documentation for the companies to process the claim and saying that they are investigating the damages caused by the occurrence of the tornado and failing to explain for the delayed processing of activities hoping that the victim will not complain of the late compensation. Insurance companies use these tactics to continue benefiting and earning interests of the money of the clients despite the clients’ conditions asking for a quick response (Benali and Feki 1394-1400). Although at long last, the companies will have to compensate the victim, the victim would have suffered enough. An example, victims of tornadoes stay in a hotel while waiting for the insurance companies to process their claims so that they may repair their homes form the damages caused by tornadoes. Their stay in hotels is always hectic because they have families, and other activities of economic reconstruction are awaiting them. Thus, victims suffer psychologically not knowing where to get financial rejuvenation.
Solutions to the problems experienced in the claim policy.
As a victim, if one feels that they have done are the necessary procedures and met the conditions laid down by their insurance companies in the time of taking the policy and their claims are not processed or are delayed. They are underpaid then they are at liberty for reaching an insurance lawyer. Insurance companies should give reasonable grounds for not reaching the victims and compensating them as dully signed in their insurance covers (Bryner, Garcia-Lozano, and Bruch 73-79). In case of a delayed investigation, insurance companies should have a reasonable ground for the delayed processes and involve the clients towards solving the problems.
After a thorough investigation, the insurance lawyer will reach out to the insurance company and provide them with the findings of his investigation with the hope that the company will scrutinize papers and provide for the proper measures and the process of compensating tornado victims. The lawyer will be reaching out to the insurance companies for consideration of a fair settlement without involving the litigation process. In most scenarios, insurance companies will always choose to settle the claims out of court rather than battling with experienced and knowledgeable lawyers in the court. The companies can sometimes reach out to the lawyers in cases of many applications happening in a single region like that of Ohio and reason with them for fair compensation for conclusive consideration rather than individual case clients for a fair settlement.
In case the insurance company and the victims cannot reach out for a solution, they may choose to settle the case in a courtroom. When a victim has the rightful procedures, they will also always win the case, and the insurance company will have to compensate them for the damages caused by the tornado plus the costs the client incurred in the litigation process.
Problems encountered while processing claims of the policy after the occurrence of tornadoes delay victims’ justice and time for their economic reconstruction. There is a need for a solution to the psychological torture subjected to the victims after experiencing financial loss that can tender them into mental conditions if they are not adequately taken care of. Some people have experienced psychiatrist conditions after the occurrence of a tornado taking everything they had rendering them beggars.
Benali, Nadia, and Rochdi Feki. “The impact of natural disasters on insurers’ profitability: Evidence from Property/Casualty Insurance company in United States.” Research in International Business and Finance 42 (2017): 1394-1400.
Bickley, Helena, and Gero Michel. “Insurance Pricing and Portfolio Management Using Catastrophe Models.” Risk Modeling for Hazards and Disasters. Elsevier, 2018. 235-246.
Bryner, Nicholas S., Marisa Garcia-Lozano, and Carl Bruch. “Washed out: Policy and practical considerations affecting return after hurricane katrina and superstorm sandy.” Journal of Asian development 3.1 (2017): 73-93.
Clark, Adam J. “Observed trends in US tornado frequency.” Climate Extremes: Patterns and Mechanisms 226 (2017): 237.
Ewing, Bradley T., Jamie B. Kruse, and Mark A. Thompson. “Employment dynamics and the Nashville tornado.” Journal of Regional Analysis & Policy 34.2 (2004): 47-60.
Korinek, Anton, and Luis Serven. “Undervaluation through foreign reserve accumulation: Static losses, dynamic gains.” Journal of International Money and Finance 64 (2016): 104-136.
O’Donovan, Kristin. “Policy failure and policy learning: Examining the conditions of learning after disaster.” Review of Policy Research 34.4 (2017): 537-558.
Prevatt, David O., et al. “Making the case for improved structural design: Tornado outbreaks of 2011.” Leadership and Management in Engineering 12.4 (2012): 254-270
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