Beer production plant

ENG1002 Client Brief – S2 2020 – V 1.0 1 Client Brief – Version 1.0 1. Project Outline The New Brew microbrewery is a start-up business owned by Don and Laura Makewell. They are seeking a preliminary analysis and design for the equipment for their microbrewery. The brewing process they will use has six main steps: mashing, lautering, boiling, cooling, fermenting and storing, as outlined in Figure 1. Your task is to determine the key equipment required – tanks, pump etc Figure 1: Proposed brewing process 1.1. The brewing process Malted barley is mixed with hot water in the mash tun using the motor/agitator and is then allowed to settle in the tun. The ratio of malt to water (by mass) is 3:10. Eg.. 3 kg of malt for every 10 kg of water.

This process takes 100 minutes in total. The liquid (called wort) is then separated from spent grain by slowly pumping wort from the bottom of the tun through a grate. This causes the wort to be filtered through the grain which has settled on the grate, in a process called lautering. A low flow velocity of 0.01 m/s down through the spent grain (across the whole area of the grate) is required. The volume of wort recovered is 78% of the volume of the mix. The spent grain (the other 22%) is removed during cleaning. The wort is next pumped into the copper where small amounts of hops (of negligible mass) are added. The hops provide the bitterness in beer and act as a preservative. The temperature of the mix in the copper at this point is 40 ̊C. The mix is then heated to boiling point (100 ̊C) and then boiled for 1 hour. The boiling evaporates water from the wort equal to 5% of the wort volume, destroying any remaining enzymes from the mashing and concentrating the wort. The wort is then pumped into a fermentation tank through a chiller which reduces its temperature. A small amount of yeast (of negligible mass) is added to cause the fermentation, which then takes 12 days.

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By the end of fermentation the solids and yeast in the liquid settle to the bottom of the tank. The temperature of the fermentation tank is controlled by the brewer via temperature control built into the tank. (How this is controlled is outside the scope of this problem) The beer (92% by volume) is drawn off above the level of the solids (the other 8%) and pumped into a storage tank, where is it kept chilled ready to bottle or dispense to customers. Production of each batch takes 1 day, fermentation takes 12 days and 1 day is required for cleaning. Students please note – You MUST READ the IMPORTANT NOTES on the last page of this document. Any comments in italics within the client brief are directed at the student for clarification. mash / lauter tun copper temperature controlled fermenter(s) refrigerated storage tank(s) hot water malted barley gas heater yeast hops customer motor pump A pump B pump C yeast & solids (8% by vol) chiller 5% evaporation 78% spent grain (22% by vol) 95% 92% HC ENG1002 Client Brief – S2 2020 – V 1.0 2 (The purpose of the Technical Analysis Report and Presentation is to present your findings from you initial analysis to your company colleagues, who are working with you on this design. Later you will complete the Design Proposal to forward to the Client.) 1.2.

The Proposed System It is proposed that the brewing plant comprise of the following equipment: • One mash/lauter tun including motor and agitator • One copper including gas heater • One chiller • One or more fermenters • Four or more storage tanks • Three pumps • Various pipes and valves to direct flows as required (ignored in this problem) • A suitable hot water source already exists at the site of installation Students please note – You MUST READ the IMPORTANT NOTES on the last page of this document and any comments in italics are directed at the student for clarification. 2. Project Design Sections The project will be divided into 5 design sections including a costing, to ensure that the requirements of the project are clear. Each section of the design is defined by the set of design parameters, listed in bold. Any company submitting a design proposal must use the given variable names for these parameters. Each design section requires a technical analysis which must be summarised in the design proposal. ( The purpose of the Technical Analysis Report and Presentation is to present your findings from you initial analysis to your company colleagues, who are working with you on this design. Later you will complete the Design Proposal to forward to the Client.) 2.1. Section 1 – Tank sizing and production capacity A technical analysis of this section should determine- • how many tanks of each type are required to minimum requirements and what are their volumes • the useful range of tank diameters and heights for each tank • the quantity of ingredients required per week to minimum requirements The defining parameters of the individual pieces of equipment are specified below.

Please note that heights are for the tank itself and DO NOT include the tank support. (each 0.5m high) All tank volumes are to be 10% larger than the volume of liquid they need to hold. This allows for small variations in the quantities of ingredients and avoids spillage. Mash/lauter tun A mash/lauter tun is a cylindrical closed tank defined by the parameters: • VM – mash tun volume (m3) (the volume of the tank itself, not its contents) • DM – mash tun diameter (m) • HM – mash tun height (m) – includes the space beneath the grate, ignoring the agitator ENG1002 Client Brief – S2 2020 – V 1.0 3 Copper A copper (boiler) is a cylindrical closed tank (with a flue) defined by the parameters: • VC – copper volume (m3) (the volume of the tank itself, not its contents) • DC – copper diameter (m) • HC – copper height (m) – ignoring the heater (ignore the flue) Fermenter A fermenter is a cylindrical closed tank defined by the parameters: • VF – fermenter volume (m3) (the volume of the tank itself, not its contents) • DF – fermenter diameter (m) • HF – fermenter height (m) Storage tank A storage tank is a cylindrical closed tank defined by the parameters: • VS – storage tank volume (m3) (the volume of the tank itself, not its contents) • DS – storage tank diameter (m) • HS – storage tank height (m) Storage Capacity The business plan for brewery specifies that a minimum of 3 different beers will normally be ontap at any time, hence this requires 3 storage tanks. The expected rate of consumption for the three beer varieties is assumed to be the same, ie. on average 500 L/week each. At least 1 ‘spare’ storage tank is also required. Spare tank is used to store newly brewed beer and enable storage tanks to be cleaned periodically. Beer is able to be stored for up to 8 weeks.

The total storage capacity of the plant is defined by the parameter: • VT – total volume of storage tanks (the volume of the tanks, not their contents) Production Capacity The average production capacity of the plant is to be a minimum of 1500 L/week. The fermentation period of a batch of beer (of any size) is 12 days. The processes of mashing, lautering, boiling, chilling and associated pumping to brew a single batch of beer all occur within 1 day, and 1 day is required for cleaning the equipment. The production of the plant is quantified by the parameters: • VB – volume of beer produced per week (L/wk) – minimum 1500 L/wk • VW – the volume of water required per week (L/wk) • MB – mass of malted barley required per week (kg/wk) Notes about production volumes At each step in the brewing process the volume of liquid transferred to the next tank is less than the previous tank. This should be taken into account when specifying tank sizes to minimise the cost of equipment. The details of the changes in volume are described in section 1.1 of this Client Brief. (Hint – start with the volume of beer produced per batch and work backward) ENG1002 Client Brief – S2 2020 – V 1.0 4 2.2. Section 2 – Plant layout A technical analysis of this section should determine- • at least one practical layout of tanks and the chiller, outlined in a drawing • the volumes, diameters, and heights for each tank to suit that layout • what options exist to achieve more than the minimum production and storage capacity Figure 2: Available space for installation The brewing plant needs a collection of tanks – the mash tun, copper, 1 or more fermenter(s), 4 or more storage tanks and 1 chiller – to meet the minimum production capacity specified in section 1. Equipment should be placed in a logical sequence to minimise the piping required. However the actual piping and how it is routed is beyond the scope of this design problem. (The piping, valves, positions of the pumps and any control equipment are outside the scope of this design problem. No valves or specific paths for piping are shown in

 

Figure 1 and are to be ignored in this problem.) All equipment must fit into the available space shown in green in

Figure 2. All equipment must be spaced horizontally 0.5 m from the outer walls and 0.5 m from other equipment. It is required that tanks be arranged in grid format to allow for straight piping runs. Tanks will NOT all be the same volume and can be sized as needed to suit the available space. All tanks sit on a stand 0.5 m high which allows space for piping, pumps, the agitator motor and the heater for the copper. All tanks require a 1 m minimum clearance above the tank to enable cleaning and addition of ingredients. The space above the walkway CANNOT be used. Chiller The chiller is a cube shaped unit 1 m x 1 m x 1 m. Only the physical size of the chiller is relevant to the design. end elevation plan 5 m 7.5 m walkway door 4.5 m 1 m 6 m external wall 0.5 m horizontal clearances 1 m vertical clearance tanks shown for clearance example only NOT to scale available space 0.5 high stands chiller ENG1002 Client Brief – S2 2020 – V 1.0 5 2.3. Section 3 – Lautering and Pump A A technical analysis of this section should determine- • the volumetric flow rate required for pump A • the time it takes to lauter the wort and transfer it to the copper • the power rating required for pump A • the selection of a suitable pump model The lautering process requires a low flow velocity of 0.01 m/s down through the spent grain (across the whole area of the grate). This flow velocity in combination with the diameter of the tun will determine the flow rate requirement for pump A. Lautering The lautering process is defined by the parameters: • TL – the time (s) taken to lauter the wort and transfer it to the copper Pump A The pump is defined by the parameters: • VFRA –volumetric flow rate (L/sec) • HC – height of the copper, ie the head (m) over which pump A raises the wort • PA – pump power (kW) – (the pump’s output power rating) • Pn – the pump model number • ρB – the density of the wort 1005 (kg/m3) given P (W) = 1.2 * MFR (kg/s) * g (m/s2) * h (m) where MFR = Mass flow Rate Selection of a suitable pump must be made from Table 2, provided in the Technical Information of this brief. 2.4. Section 4 – Boiling and Fermenting (Details for this section will be provided in the Client Brief V2) 2.5. Section 5 – Equipment Costing (Details in for this section will be provided in the Client Brief V2) 3. Design Specifications 3.1. Design Goals G1. Maximise the production capacity of the system G2. Minimise the capital cost of the system G3. If possible, provide the capability to brew and store more types of beer 3.2. Design Requirements/Constraints R1.

The average production capacity of the plant is to be a minimum of 1500 L/week R2. The budget for the equipment is yet to be defined. (in Client Brief V2) 3.3. Simplifying Assumptions A1. The means by which different beers are brewed is outside the scope of this design and does not influence any parameters of the design. A2. The density of the wort at all points in the process is to be assumed to be 1005 kg/m3. A3. Assume completely closed tanks (ignoring hatches pipe connections etc) ENG1002 Client Brief – S2 2020 – V 1.0 6 4. Technical Information Table 1. Density of ingredients and product Description Identifier Value Unit Density of water ρW 1000 kg/m3 Density of malted barley ρM 500 kg/m3 Density of beer (wort) ρB 1005 kg/m3 Table 2. Pump Selection Pump Model Output Power (kW) Cost $ P1 0.5 500 P2 1.0 900 P3 1.5 1300 ENG1002 Client Brief – S2 2020 – V 1.0 7 Important notes to students The sections listed above are to be used to subdivide the analysis and design process and identify the sections you are to use for your Technical Analysis & Presentation and Design Proposal assignments. IMPORTANT: This is a closed design problem where all information required to complete the technical analysis, calculations and evaluation of possible solutions will be available in the Client Brief, your text books or other provided assignment material. The problem presented is a simplified version of a real design problem, so the more complex aspects and fine details of the components of the proposed system are ignored

. If you find yourself seeking information beyond that provided in the Client Brief, your text books or other assignment material then you are probably over thinking the problem. The three assessments using this problem are able to be completed using just the engineering fundamentals you are studying, supported by other course material and tools like the spreadsheet. There is no need to research commercial equipment. For the technical analysis report (in the TAP assignment) all students must complete a technical analysis and prepare a short technical report on design section 1 (only) of the project. For the presentation (in the TAP assignment) all students must complete a technical analysis and prepare a short oral presentation on design section 2 OR 3 (only) of the project. Present a summarised technical analysis of that section of the design and how it links to section 1 of the design. The presentation is to be prepared and delivered as if it was to be delivered to colleagues in your company who are working with you on the larger project. For the Design Proposal assessment students are expected to complete the technical analysis for the whole project, model the design on a spreadsheet, evaluate some alternatives within the design and select a specific design solution to recommend in their report. The recommendation must clearly specify all of the parameters listed in the design sections in bold, as they define each section of the design. Students should note there is more than one correct answer to this problem, as several possible solutions will meet the requirements of the design.

You are NOT expected to find an optimum solution, but simply to identify where the better solutions are across the possible solution space (defined by a range of parameters) and recommend one solution. Furthermore – a technical analysis of a single design section ALONE is unlikely to identify a single set of design parameters that results in a workable final design, as the sections are somewhat dependent on each other. Hence when you complete a technical analysis on a single section of the design you are not looking for a specific single ‘answer’, but identifying the range of parameters that meet the requirements of that section. The staged release of a Version 1 and a Version 2 of the Client Brief is intended to discourage students from trying to ‘solve’ the whole problem at once, because some students try to present a single ‘best case’ as the outcome of an analysis of a single section. Your analysis should show the equation connecting the relevant parameters and investigate the relationships between the parameters within each section and possibly with those in other sections of the design.

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