This is a two in one assignment. The first part of the discussion you’re required to write the response to the initial instruction then in the second part you have to respond to a student discussion post that I will copy below. Please cite all work. All material needed will be attached
In addition to the Stalebrink and Frisco article, you are required to read three additional journal articles as part of this lesson. The first article was written by Moynihan (2005) and entitled “Why and How Do State Governments Adopt and Implement ‘Managing for Results.’” This article investigates “performance management puzzles” raised by the implementation of the NPR doctrine at the state level, using three case studies. As such, it offers additional substance to the previous discussion related to challenges associated with recent efforts to implement result-oriented reforms. As you will find, Moynihan emphasizes three puzzles that stem from the following contradictions:
1. state governments have widely adopted reforms related to managing for results but not to managerial flexibility;
2. most state governments have instituted performance management reforms, but few statewide actors have bothered to use them; and
3. many state agencies have benefited from these reforms, despite nonuse by statewide actors.
As you read this article, consider the following important questions:
• What does Moynihan find, in terms of explanations for why politicians advocate the adoption of NPR doctrine reforms?
• What are some of the unintended consequences of MFR implementation?
• What are some of the unexpected successes that might arise during MFR implementation?
Julnes & Holzer (2001)
The second article was written by Julnes and Holzer (2001) and is titled “Promoting the Utilization of Performance Measures in Public Organizations: An Empirical Study of Factors Affecting Adoption and Implementation.” As indicated by the title, this article seeks to illustrate which factors affect the adoption and the implementation of performance measures. As you read this article, try to identify the extent to which the different strategies that are discussed in the Poister textbook are among the factors that Julnes and Holzer identify.
The third reading is a report written by Moynihan. It offers offers recommendations about actions to ensure that the Government Performance and Results Modernization Act (GPRA) improves performance as agencies implement the law. As you read the report, consider how the federal performance management systems have changed over the past 20 years (i.e., since the passage of the GPRA of1993).
As part of this Watercooler Discussion, you are required to collect one “golden line” from either article. Specifically, you need to collect your golden line and briefly describe why it caught your interest. Post your golden line and the accompanying explanationAfter you have finished reading the two articles by Moynihan and the article by Julnes and Holzer, post one of your reflections. Your reflection needs to be 75–100 words in length.
You also need to comment on at least one of your fellow students’ postings. These need to be 50–75 words in length.
The question that stood out to me in the Moynihan article was “Why was there a partial adoption of NPM doctrine, emphasizing a focus on results but neglecting managerial flexibility” (2005, p.219)? The article goes on to point out the influence of central agencies that are tasked with designing and overseeing reforms. Central agency staff “are aware of the idea that enhanced managerial authority is a means of improving performance but have never operationalized it to the degree demanded by NPM doctrine” (2005, p. 225). Therefore a system arises that tries to blend traditional norms of control with NPM and the results are reforms that are not fully realized. Poister notes that installing a system, building commitment to it, using it on an ongoing basis, and embedding it into other management and decision- making processes can be a daunting challenge (2015, p. 418). However, this is necessary to fully realize the benefits that come from NPM and MFR.
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